Friday, 14 December 2012

Zombie Studies / Aesthetics

This requires further investigation

Zombie Studies. "It is a class to die for - Zombie studies is now on the curriculum at the University of Baltimore." Reports the BBC. And Academia.

Further reading:

Boon, Kevin Alexander. "Ontological anxiety made flesh: the zombie in literature, film and culture." Monsters and the Monstrous: Myths and Metaphors of Enduring Evil (2007): 33-43;

Lauro, Sarah Juliet and Karen Embry, “A Zombie Manifesto: The Nonhuman Condition in the Era of Advanced Capitalism,” boundary 2 (2008)

Lieberman, Matthew D. "What zombies can’t do: A social cognitive neuroscience approach to the irreducibility of reflective consciousness." In two minds: Dual processes and beyond (2009): 293-316;

Petchesky, Rosalind. "Phantom Empire: A Feminist Reflection Ten Years After 9/11." WSQ: Women's Studies Quarterly 39.3 (2011): 288-294;

Ian Bogost, Alien Phenomenology, or What It’s Like to Be a Thing (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2012)

Hassler-Forest, D. A. N. "Cowboys and zombies: Destabilizing patriarchal discourse in The Walking Dead." Studies in Comics 2.2 (2012): 339-355;

Soldier, Dave. "Eine Kleine Naughtmusik: How Nefarious Nonartists Cleverly Imitate Music." Leonardo Music Journal (2002): 53-58;

World War Z: An Oral History of the Zombie War (New York: Random House, 2006).

Bishop, Kyle William. American Zombie Gothic: The Rise and Fall (and Rise) of the Walking Dead in Popular Culture. (McFarland, 2010) 

Jones, Steve. "Gender Monstrosity: Deadgirl and the sexual politics of zombie-rape. (Taylor and Francis 2012)

Peter Dendle, “Zombie Movies and the ‘Millennial Generation,” Better Off Dead: The Evolution of the Zombie as Post-Human, ed. Deborah Christie and Sarah Juliet Lauro (New York: Fordham University Press, 2011) 175-86

Christie, Deborah, and Sarah Juliet Lauro. Better Off Dead: The Evolution of the Zombie as Post-human. (Fordham Univ Press, 2011)

The Zombie Survival GuideComplete Protection from the Living Dead (New York: Three Rivers Press, 2003).

McCullough, Joseph. Zombies: A Hunter's Guide. Osprey Publishing, 2010; 

Moreman, Christopher M., and Cory James Rushton. Zombies are Us: Essays on the Humanity of the Walking Dead. McFarland, 2011.

Grey (A Zombie Ecology) by J J Cohen here. This was based on the keynote at the Sensualising Deformity conference at the University of Edinburgh, 15-16th June 2012.

Bardolatory: "Night of the Living Dead - Shakespeare and Romero" here

Meme Warfare

Aday, S. et al. (2010) Blogs and Bullets: New Media in Contentious Politics, Peaceworks
Bennett, W.L. (2003) The Internet and Global Activism, In Contesting Media Power
Bennett, W.L. (2003) Communicating Global Activism: Strengths and vulnerabilities of networked politics, In Information, Communication & Society
Cammaerts, B. (2007) Jamming the political: beyond counter-hegemonic practices, In Continuum: journal of media & cultural studies
Hancox, D. (2011) FIGHT BACK! A Reader on the Winter of Protest, Open Democracy
Hiruta, K. (2013) Two Cheers for Laughtivism, Practical Ethics: Ethics in the News
Horwatt, E. (2007) A Taxonomy of Digital Video Remixing: Contemporary Found Footage Practice on the Internet, In Cultural Borrowings: Appropriation, Reworking, Transformation
McClish, C.L. (2009) Activism Based in Embarrassment: The Anti-Consumption Spirituality of the Reverend Billy, In Liminalities: A Journal of Performance Studies
Peters, A. (2012) Part Two: open source activism and memes, Open Democracy
Pickerel, W., Jorgensen, H. & Bennett, L. (2002) Culture Jams and Meme Warfare: Kalle Lasn, Adbusters, and media activism, Tactics in Global Activism for the 21st century
Popovic, S. (2013) The Power of Laughtivism: Srdja Popovic, At TEDxBG
White, M. Activism After Clicktivism, Q Ideas for the common good
De Voy, S. (2005) Meme Warfare: How to overthrow the powers that be on a low budget

Heterarchy and Memepunk Discourses

"And yet when I say "strange loop", I have something else in mind — a less concrete, more elusive notion. What I mean by "strange loop" is — here goes a first stab, anyway — not a physical circuit but an abstract loop in which, in the series of stages that constitute the cycling-around, there is a shift from one level of abstraction (or structure) to another, which feels like an upwards movement in a hierarchy, and yet somehow the successive "upward" shifts turn out to give rise to a closed cycle. That is, despite one's sense of departing ever further from one's origin, one winds up, to one's shock, exactly where one had started out. In short, a strange loop is a paradoxical level-crossing feedback loop."

— Douglas Hofstadter, I Am a Strange Loop, pp. 101-102

"In the end, we are self-perceiving, self-inventing, locked-in mirages that are little miracles of self-reference."

— Douglas Hofstadter, I Am a Strange Loop, p. 363

Someone drew my attention to these quotations with reference to the fashion for #seapunk. Which in turn led me to concoct #dogpunk, #catpunk, #memepunk and the Tudor innuendo #methinkspunk.

With first mover advantage, I define #memepunk as "the ultimate DIY of ephemeral teratology" ...

Further Reading

"Eight Aspects of grotesque kitsch and freaky metamorphosis."   Available Here.


The Leviathan, Second Nature, and the Artificial Man

Our society is populated by cyborg discourses, robotics, genetic modification, zombie studies and newly emergent teratologies. But Hobbes' reconstruction of the traditional notion of the body politic as a man machine makes fascinating reading. It also provides a dark allegory of human nature, greed and self-interest.

If you ever imagined that political theory was a dull, disembodied discourse, take another look at  the introduction to Hobbes' Leviathan, published in 1651.

NATURE, the art whereby God hath made and governs the world, is by the ‘art,’ of man, as in many other things, so in this also imitated, that it can make an artificial animal. For seeing life is but a motion of limbs, the beginning whereof is in some principal part within; why may we not say, that all ‘automata’ (engines that move themselves by springs and wheels as doth a watch) have an artificial life? For what is the ‘heart’ but a ‘spring’; and the ‘nerves’ but so many ‘strings’; and the ‘joints’ but so many ‘wheels,’ giving motion to the whole body, such as was intended by the artificer? ‘Art’ goes yet further, imitating that rational and most excellent work of nature, ‘man.’

For by art is created that great ‘Leviathan’ called a ‘Commonwealth’ or ‘State,’ in Latin civitas, which is but an artificial man, though of greater stature and strength than the natural, for whose protection and defence it was intended; and in which the ‘sovereignty’ is an artificial ‘soul,’ as giving life and motion to the whole body; the ‘magistrates’ and other ‘officers’ of judicature and execution, artificial ‘joints’; ‘reward’ and ‘punishment,’ by which fastened to the seat of the sovereignty every joint and member is moved to perform his duty, are the ‘nerves,’ that do the same in the body natural; the ‘wealth’ and ‘riches’ of all the particular members are the ‘strength’; salus populi, the ‘people’s safety,’ its ‘business’; ‘counsellors,’ by whom all things needful for it to know are suggested unto it, are the ‘memory’; ‘equity’ and ‘laws,’ an artificial ‘reason’ and ‘will’; ‘concord,’ ‘health’; ‘sedition,’ ‘sickness’; and ‘civil war,’ ‘death.’ Lastly, the ‘pacts’ and ‘covenants’, by which the parts of this body politic were at first made, set together, and united, resemble that ‘fiat,’ or the ‘let us make man,’ pronounced by God in the creation.

Text: Hobbes' Leviathan (1651)

Militarism and Colonialism: Monster cartography. See below! More here.


Also worth exploring is L'homme Machine / The Man Machine (1748) by La Mettrie (1709-1751), discussed by Karl Popper:

"Yet the doctrine that man is a machine was argued most forcefully in 1751, long before the theory of evolution became generally accepted, by de La Mettrie; and the theory of evolution gave the problem an even sharper edge, by suggesting there may be no clear distinction between living matter and dead matter. And, in spite of the victory of the new quantum theory, and the conversion of so many physicists to indeterminism de La Mettrie's doctrine that man is a machine has perhaps more defenders than before among physicists, biologists and philosophers; especially in the form of the thesis that man in a computer."

"Of Clouds and Cuckoos", in Objective Knowledge (1978), p. 224.

Wednesday, 12 December 2012

Grotesque Soviet Opera

Last night I chose to listen to a CD recording of Shostakovich's opera Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk produced in 1990. A couple of hours later I heard that Galina Vishnevskaya had died. What a sad loss. Hearing the opera again led me to reconsider her life, and the strange opera in which she sings the leading soprano role. The opera, like her life, was a stormy affair.

Stalin famously walked out of a performance of  Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk, leading to a denunciation of the opera in the infamous Pravda article "Chaos instead of music" in 1936

For more than twenty years Shostakovich's opera remained in limbo as a shameful, hideous example of what Pravda's editorial called "din, gnash and screech", "cacophony" and "musical noise"

A 1935 review in the New York Sun called it "pornophony", referring to the lurid descriptive music in the sex scenes. Stravinsky described the opera as "lamentably provincial", considering the musical portrayal primitively realistic.

The EMI Libretto booklet notes that "The police force in Lady Macbeth is at once frightening and amusing. At the same time, Shostakovich by the very unfolding of the conflict emphasizes that the existence of such a grotesque and horrifying mechanism is possible only in a society that is built on violence, from top to bottom." p. 10.

Daniil Zhitomirsky accused the work of "primitive satire" in its treatment of the priest and police, but acknowledges the "incredible force" of the last scene. [Wikipedia]

The opera still has the power to shock. Reviewing a performance of the Opera at Staatstheater Wiesbaden on May 16, 2005 the critic summarised the plot as follows:

"In the first five scenes, they had witnessed the brutal rape of a maid, had seen Katerina sexually fantasizing (masturbating) in her bed, and then having sex with Sergei. They were forced to watch Katerina's sadistic father-in-law Boris whip Sergei to within inches of his life and then see Boris himself die, writhing in agony after eating rat poison. And finally, before the curtain came down for the interval, they gaped in horror as Katerina and her lover strangled her husband Zinovy to death."

Notes from the Daily Telegraph obituary:

Her star began to wane in 1969 when Rostropovich offered his friend, Alexander Solzhenitsyn, sanctuary in his dacha outside Moscow after discovering that the dissident writer was living in a shack without heat or running water. Rostropovich came under official pressure to evict him, but the musician not only refused, he wrote an open letter to the press in which he proclaimed that “Each human being must have the right to think for himself and to express his opinion without fear.

Almost immediately, Rostropovich’s name disappeared from the billboards owing, according to the official line, to his “decline as a musician”. Galina Vishnevskaya, who had urged caution on her husband, was initially allowed to continue performing. But she found that she had become a non-person; when she sang the lead in Prokofiev’s The Gambler, her name was not even mentioned in the reviews.


Further Reading

Wilson, Elizabeth (1994). Shostakovich: A Life Remembered. Princeton University Press

Frolova-Walker, Marina (2005). "11. Russian opera; The retrieval of the human element: Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk and The Fiery Angel". In Mervyn Cooke. The Cambridge Companion to Twentieth-Century Opera. London: Cambridge University Press. pp. 182–186

Taruskin, Richard (1989). "The Opera and the Dictator: the peculiar martyrdom of Dmitri Shostakovich." The New Republic, March 20, 1989, pp. 34-40 

Emerson, Caryl. "Back to the future: Shostakovich’s revision of Leskov’s “Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk District”." Cambridge Opera Journal 1.1 (1989): 60-62.
Makanowitzky, Barbara. "Music to Serve the State." Russian Review 24.3 (1965): 266-277.
Chapple, Freda. "Adaptation as Education: A Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District." Journal of Adaptation in Film & Performance 1.1 (2007): 17-31.
White, Richard HR. "Shostakovich versus the Central Committee: the power of music." Clinical Medicine, Journal of the Royal College of Physicians 8.4 (2008): 405-409.
Frolova-Walker, Marina. "Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk: Bleak Tragedy or Black Comedy?." The Opera Quarterly 25.1-2 (2009): 150-156.
Clark, Katerina. "Culture and Soviet Power." Theater 33.1 (2003): 96-98.


Tuesday, 11 December 2012

Origins of the Ogre, Darwin and the Dark Imaginary

Neanderthal - H.G. Wells's Outline of History

H.G. Wells's The Outline of History (1921) includes this graphic description of the

We know nothing of the appearance of the Neanderthal man, but this absence of intermixture seems to suggest an extreme hairiness, an ugliness, or a repulsive strangeness in his appearance over and above his low forehead, his beetle brows, his ape neck, and his inferior stature. Or he"and she"may have been too fierce to tame. Says Sir Harry Johnston, in a survey of the rise of modern man in his Views and Reviews: The dim racial remembrance of such gorilla-like monsters, with cunning brains, shambling gait, hairy bodies, strong teeth, and possibly cannibalistic tendencies, may he the germ of the ogre in folklore...p.40

Bernard F. Dick, has pointed out that William Golding derived his inspiration for The Inheritors from this passage, as the novelist explained:

Wells' Outline of History played a great part in my life because my father was a rationalist, and the Outline was something he took neat. Well now, Wells' Outline of History is the rationalist's gospel in excelsis, I should think. I got this from my father, and by and by it seemed to me not to be large enough. It seemed to me to be too neat and slick. And when I re-read it as an adult I came across his picture of Neanderthal man, our immediate predecessors, as being the gross brutal creatures who were possibly the basis of the mythological bad man, whatever he may be, the ogre. I thought to myself that this is just absurd. What we're
doing is externalizing our inside. ["The Meaning of It All," 10.]

In his chapter on Golding, Dick concludes that

The Neanderthals are not the heroes, nor are the New People the villains of the novel. If the New People are the "true men," as Wells called moderns in the Outline, if they are supposed to tower over the rest of creation, they should be capable of using their intellect to quell their dark, demonic urges. Yet the opposite is true: the New People are less able to master them than the Neanderthals. Each rung on the evolutionary ladder brings additional knowledge, but always at a price.

Lisa Fluet further explores TS Eliot's participation - as a book reviewer - in the debate on Darwinism between Wells and Belloc.

Where do we put Eliot's Apeneck Sweeney in this discussion?

Any thoughts on Eliot's monstrous modernity?


"As for the men of my time who have been able to capture a large audience . . . they are all, by comparison with Mr. Wells, pygmies." --- T. S. Eliot, "Wells as Journalist"

Further Reading

Fluet, Lisa. "Modernism and Disciplinary History: On HG Wells and TS Eliot." Twentieth-Century Literature (2004): 283-316.

Dick, Bernard F. "Chapter 3: Our Ancestral Ogres." William Golding, Rev. ed. Bernard F. Dick. Boston: Twayne, 1987. Twayne's English Authors Series 57. The Twayne Authors Series. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.

Mark Kinkead-Weekes and Ian Gregor, William Golding: A Critical Study (New York, 1967) 

William Golding, "The Meaning of It All," Books and Bookmen 5 (October 1959): 9-10

Robert D. Evans, "The Inheritors: Some Inversions," in William Golding: Some Critical Considerations, ed. Jack I. Biles and Robert O. Evans (New York, 1970)

Costa, Richard Hauer. "Chapter 10: Wells and the Critics." H. G. Wells, Rev. ed. Richard Hauer Costa. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1985. Twayne's English Authors Series 43. The Twayne Authors Series. Web. 11 Dec. 2012. 

Monday, 10 December 2012

The Black Dwarf - 13 Observations on Walter Scott and Wuthering Heights

This was the 1st of one thousand short blogs on deformity, the monstrous, and the grotesque. It's an ongoing project.

I'm not sure why I wanted to start with one of Scott's least-read fictions. Perhaps reading it recalled Bronte's Wuthering Heights, and my Yorkshire ancestry? Recent critics have indeed claimed to find similarities between the two texts (see further reading, below). After selecting some of the most noteworthy quotations I will be offering 13 observations on the text.

"The ideal being who is here presented as residing in solitude, and haunted by a consciousness of his own deformity and a suspicion of his being generally subjected to the scorn of his fellow men, is not altogether imaginary. An individual existed many years since, under the Author's observation, which suggested such a character. this poor unfortunate man's name was David Ritchie, an native of Tweeddale."

The Introduction to The Black Dwarf also quotes from the Scots Magazine (1817: i.207)

"His skull," says this authority, "which was of an oblong, and rather unusual shape, was of such strength that he could strike it with ease through the panel of a door or the end of a tar barrel. His laugh is said to have been quite horrible; and is screech-owl-voice, shrill, uncouth, and dissonant, corresponded well with his other peculiarities."

"He never wore shoes, being unable to adapt them to his misshapen fin-like feet, but always had both feet and legs quite concealed, and wrapt up with pieces of cloth."

"A jealous, misanthropical, and irritable temper was his most prominent characteristic. The sense of his deformity haunted him like a phantom; and the insults and scorn to which this exposed him had poisoned his heart with fierce and bitter feelings, which, from other traits in his character, do not appear to have been largely infused into his original temperament than that of his fellow-men.

"He detested children, on account of their propensity to insult and persecute him. To strangers he was generally reserved, crabbed, and surly; and though he by no means refused assistance or charity, he on many occasions neither expressed  nor exhibited much gratitude."

The author proceeds to speculate, in his introduction

Nature maintains a certain balance of good and evil in all her works; and there is no state perhaps so utterly desolate which does not possess some source of gratification peculiar to itself. This poor man, whose misanthropy was founded sense of his own preternatural deformity, had yet his own particular enjoyments. driven into solitude, he became an admirer of the beauties of nature. His garden, which he sedulously cultivated, and from a piece of wild moorland made a very productive spot, was his pride and delight; but he was also an admirer of more natural beauty: the soft sweep of the green hill, the bubbling of a clear fountain, or the complexities of a wild thicket, were scenes on which he gazed for hours, and, he said, with inexpressible delight. it was perhaps for this reason that he was fond of Shenstone's pastorals and some parts of Paradise Lost. The Author has heard his most unmusical voice repeat the celebrated description of Paradise, which he seemed fully to appreciate."

"He expressed disgust at the idea of his remains being mixed with the common rubbish, as he called it, of the churchyard, and selected with his usual taste a beautiful and wild spot in the glen where he had his hermitage, in which to take his last repose. He changed his mind, however, and was finally interred in the common burial-ground of Manor parish."

"The Author has invested Wise Elshie with some qualities which made him appear, in the eyes of the vulgar, a man possessed of supernatural power. common fame paid David Ritchie a similar compliment, for some of the poor and ignorant, as well as all the children in the neigbourhood, held him to be what is called 'uncanny.' He himself did not altogether the idea; it enlarged his very limited circle of power, and in so far gratified his conceit; and it soothed his misanthropy, by increasing his means of giving terror or pain. But even in a rude Scottish glen thirty years back the fear of sorcery was very much out of date."

"David Ritchie affected to frequent solitary scenes, especially such as were supposed to be haunted, and valued himself upon his courage in doing so. To be sure, he had little chance of meeting anything more ugly than himself."

"David often received gratuities from strangers, which he never asked, never refused, and never seemed to consider as an obligation. he had a right, indeed, to regard himself as one of Nature's paupers, to whom she gave a title to be maintained by his kind, even by that deformity which closed against him all ordinary ways of supporting himself by his own labour."

"When he died, in the beginning of the present century, he was found to have hoarded about twenty pounds, a habit very consistent with his disposition; for wealth is power, and power was what David Ritchie desired to possess, as a compensation for his exclusion from society."

"Dr Fergusson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity and original ideas, but whose mind was thrown off its just bias by a predominant degree of self-love, and self-opinion, galled by the sense of ridicule and contempt, and avenging itself upon society, in idea at least, by a gloomy misanthropy."

"The story was intended to be longer, and the catastrophe more artificially brought out; but a friendly critic, to whose opinion I subjected the work in its progress, was of opinion that the idea of the Solitary was of as kind too revolting, and more likely to disgust than to interest the reader. as I had a good right to consider my adviser as an excellent judge of public opinion, I got off my subject by hastening the story to an end as fast as it was possible; and by huddling into one volume a tale which was designed to occupy two, have perhaps produced a narrative as much disproportioned and distorted as the Black Dwarf who is its subject."


  1. Scott’s portrait is multiple and ambiguous
  1. The grotesque seldom partakes of unqualified horror or unmixed disgust. Scott draws on the Ritchie’s aesthetic temperament as a redeeming feature 
  1. Scott has shown that Ritchie’s ill-temper is the product of society’s hostility to him, rather than innate
  1. Ritchie resembles Frankenstein’s monster insofar as there is a link to the appreciation of Nature and poetry, namely John Milton’s Paradise Lost 
  1. But he is also Satan, the outsider and observer of a paradise from which he is excluded. John Milton’s Paradise Lost again
  1. Ritchie is a romantic and solitary figure, located in nature. His physical deformity is a product of nature. (Rather than a result of a supernatural curse.) 
  1. The social fabric of society supports him through charity
  1. Common preconception that the diminutive in size, inevitably seek power. They also suffer from an inward turn. On both counts note period satires on Napoleon Bonaparte. 
  1. Interesting to have a “description” of his voice – the monstrous tends to rely on the visual effigy.
  1. The deformity is physical but it is also phenomenal and gothic; it is something that haunts him. 
  1. He is outside of humanity (“common  rubbish”) but his destiny, in death, is to rejoin it.
  1. The novel is a grotesque. Two in One. Scott also wrote that he was “tired of the ground I had trode so often before I had walked over two thirds of the course. [...] So I quarrelled with my story, & bungled up a conclusion as a boarding school Miss finishes a task which she had commenced with great glee & accuracy” (Letter to Lady Louisa Stuart: 14 November 1816.) 
  1. Further research on legends, the  “Brown Man of the Moors”

Further reading

Boatright, Mody C. "Demonology in the Novels of Sir Walter Scott: A Study in Regionalism." Studies in English (1934): 75-88. "The Black Dwarf is one of the least satisfactory of Scott's tales, and the attempt at mystification with theRadcliffian ending is no small factor in the failure of the work"

Boatright, Mody C. "Witchcraft in the Novels of Sir Walter Scott." Studies in English (1933): 95-112.
Carson, James P. "Scott and the Romantic Dog." Journal for Eighteenth‐Century Studies 33.4 (2010): 647-661.

Garbin, Lidia. ‘Literary Giants and Black Dwarfs’, Scottish Studies Review, 1 (2000), 78-93.

Gordon, Robert C. "The Bride of Lammermoor: A Novel of Tory Pessimism." Nineteenth-Century Fiction 12.2 (1957): 110-124. "Two other novels reveal Scott's deepening awareness of the tragic possibilities in the mutations of human history. The Black Dwarf, the most abortive of the Waverley Novels, is a study in the misanthropy of a deformed and embittered man..."

Hendrix, Richard. "Popular Humor and" The Black Dwarf"." The Journal of British Studies 16.1 (1976): 108-128.

Hwang, Jing‐Huey. "Rethinking Britishness in the Fictional Japanese Letters of TJ Wooler's Black Dwarf." Journal for Eighteenth‐Century Studies.

Irvine, Robert P. "Scott's" The Black Dwarf": The Gothic and the Female Author." Studies in Romanticism 38.2 (1999): 223-248.

Jones, Steven E. 'Satiric Performance in The Black Dwarf', in Satire and Romanticism. New York, NY.: St Martin’s Press, 2000., pp. 71-110. Considers how far Thomas J. Wooler's satirical weekly The Black Dwarf (1817-24) may have been inspired by Scott's novel of the same name.

Oda, Yukari. "Wuthering Heights and the Waverley Novels: Sir Walter Scott's Influence on Emily Brontë." Bronte Studies 32.3 (2007): 217-226.

Parsons, Coleman O. "The Original of the Black Dwarf." Studies in Philology 40.4 (1943): 567-575. Reads The Black Dwarf as the 'intentional representation of a Timon-like personality endowed with a Byronic and, possibly, Scottian awareness of physical deformity'.

Smith, Sheila. "'At Once Strong and Eerie': The Supernatural in Wuthering Heights and Its Debt to the Traditional Ballad." Review of English Studies (1992): 498-517.

Truten, Jack. "Sir Walter Scott: Folklore and Fiction." Studies in Scottish Literature 26.1 (1991): 18.

Wooler, Thomas Jonathan, ed. The Black Dwarf. Vol. 6. T. J. Wooler, 1821.